10, 11 The first, rheological effect, reduces blood viscosity, and promotes plasma expansion and cerebral oxygen delivery. Mannitol has traditionally been the mainstay of medical therapy for intracranial hypertension in patients with head injury. Jul 21, · Fatty changes of the renal tubular cells, cerebral edema, and neuronal degeneration of the brain are the major extra hepatic changes in Reye' s syndrome. 9 Mannitol lowers ICP through two distinct effects in the brain. Mannitol - National Library of Medicine - PubMed Health. Mannitol, given as a hypertonic solution, is primarily used in the treatment of cerebral edema and glaucoma.
Mannitol injection is also used to reduce swelling and pressure inside the eye or around the brain. Mannitol therapy is widely used in the clinical setting for acute and subacute reduction in brain edema, to decrease muscle damage in compartment syndrome, and to improve renal perfusion 1). Mannitol is a diuretic used to force urine production in people with acute ( sudden) kidney failure. A, Pharmacy, answered. Mannitol is an osmotic diuretic that helps reduce fluid in the body, including that which causes cerebral edema or swelling. When mannitol is in the blood, it causes fluid in tissues where there is no mannitol ( the brain) to move to the blood. Mannitol is a naturally occurring alcohol found in fruits and vegetables and mannitol is used as an osmotic diuretic and a renal diagnostic aid. Mannitol is a sugar alcohol ( C 6 H 14 O 6) that decreases water and sodium reabsorption in the renal tubule and has been used for the reduction of ICP or cerebral edema since the 1960s. Cerebral edema is defined as the excess accumulation of water in the intracellular and extracellular spaces of the brain. We previously demonstrated that mannitol reduces brain volume in patients with cerebral edema, although whether this occurs due to a reduction in brain water, blood volume or both remains poorly understood. Then the fluid gets excreted by the kidneys. Mannitol is available under the following different brand names: Osmitrol. Introduction Although osmotic agents have been utilized to reduce cerebral edema for nearly 5 decades, significant controversy regarding choice of agent and dosing exists. Cerebral edema is a common condition that usually presents as a consequence of a local or systemic pathology rather than a primary condition. Mannitol in cerebral edema. At high concentrations, mannitol may cross blood brain barrier and interfere with ability of brain to maintain pH of cerebrospinal fluid especially in presence of acidosis In patients with preexisting compromise of blood brain barrier, risk of increasing cerebral edema ( general and focal) associated with repeated or continued use of product. Mannitol to reduce the cerebral edema [ 25]. Diuresis caused by mannitol administration may exacerbate electrolyte imbalances. Although generally well tolerated, a variety of fluid, electrolyte, and renal complications can occur if the patient is not carefully monitored. Accepted for publication October 12,. Mannitol, hypertonic saline, osmotic therapy, cerebral edema Received July 7,, and in revised form September 20,. Jan 12, · Mannitol is widely used in the management of cerebral oedema and raised intracranial pressure ( ICP) from multiple causes. Mannitol is used for renal protection in cardiac and vascular surgery and during renal transplantation and in the management of rhabdomyolysis. Mannitol therapy should be discontinued if progression in renal damage or dysfunction, heart failure, or pulmonary congestion occurs. Therapy consists of infusion of glucose and fresh frozen plasma, as well as intravenous. A test dose should be administered in patients with severe renal impairment.